Distribution and Status of the White-tailed Ptarmigan
In addition to the possibility of natural expansion, the species also has been successfully introduced into suitable habitats outside its native range, including the Sierra Nevada in California (Clarke 1989, Clarke and Johnson 1990, Frederick and Gutierrez 1992), Uinta Mountains in Utah (Braun et al. 1978), and the Pecos Wilderness Area in New Mexico (Hubbard and Eley 1985). White-tailed Ptarmigan also were released into the Wallowa Mountains in northeastern Oregon, but the translocation was unsuccessful (Evanich 1980, Braun 1993).Hoffman’s Figure 2 (on p. 13) shows the known distribution of the White-tailed Ptarmigan, along with locations of successfully introduced populations in California, New Mexico, and Utah.
Braun, C. E. 1993. White-tailed ptarmigan habitat investigations in northeast Oregon. Oregon Birds 19: 72-73.
Braun, C. E., D. H. Nish, and K. M. Giesen. 1978. Release and establishment of white-tailed ptarmigan in Utah. Southwestern Naturalist 23: 661-668.
Clarke, J. A. 1989. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in the Sierra Nevada: a comparative study of an introduced population. Dissertation. Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.
Clarke, J. A., and R. E. Johnson. 1990. Biogeography of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus): implications from an introduced population in the Sierra Nevada. Journal of Biogeography 17: 649-656.
Evanich, J. 1980. Status of White-tailed ptarmigan in Oregon. Oregon Birds 6: 98-100.
Frederick, G. P., and R. J. Gutierrez. 1992. Habitat use and population characteristics of the white-tailed ptarmigan in the Sierra Nevada, California. Condor 94: 889-902.
Hoffman, R. W. 2006 (April 4). White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus): a technical assessment. Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project. 71 pp.
Hubbard, J. P., and J. W. Eley. 1985. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus). Handbook of species endangered in New Mexico, Birds/PS/LA/LE:1-2. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, Santa Fe, New Mexico.